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Wittenberg Door

This is the door of the Castle church in Wittenberg where Martin Luther nailed the 95 Theses.

Peasant

Munster

This is the steeple of St Lambert's cathedral in Munster. The bodies of Jan of Leyden and two other Anabaptists were placed in these cages after they were tortured and killed.

Luther and Katie

Luther married Katherine von Bora in 1525.

Ingolstadt church

Cathedral in Ingolstadt where Johann Eck and Balthasar Hübmaier preached.

Limmat

Limmat River near Zurich where Felix Manz was drowned.

ingolstadt_u

This is a mural on the wall of the University of Ingolstadt.

calvin_geneva

This is a statue of Calvin at the Reformation Monument in Geneva.

menno_church

This is Menno Simon's church in Witmarsum. Notice how plain it is in comparison to churches of other movements.

luther_hall

Luther Hall in Wittenberg. Many reformers, including Robert Barnes met with Luther here during the Reformation.

grossmunster

Grossmunster Church in Zurich. Blaurock was the first adult baptized in Zurich.

augsburg_water

This is a view of the stream that winds its way through Augsburg. Pilgram Marpeck was able to avoid persecution because he was a civil engineer in Strasburg and Augsburg.

augsburg-courthouse

Courthouse in Augsburg.

grossmunster

Grossmunster Church in Zurich where Grebel attended while studying the Bible with Zwingli.

Melanchthon's Grave

Melanchthon's Grave in the Castle Church at Wittenberg.

Melanchthon Study

Melanchthon's study in Wittenberg.

Zwingli Statue

Statue of Zwingli at the Wasserkirke in Zurich.

Moses

Above is Michelangelo's Moses, a monument to Pope Julius II in San Pietro in Vincoli (Saint Peter in Chains).

Ingolstadt Church

Church in Ingolstadt where Johann Eck and Balthasar Hübmaier preached.

Doopsgezinde

Doopsgezinde is the term used for Anabaptists in the Netherlands today. They are known as Mennonites elsewhere.

Ingolstadt University

View of the University of Ingolstadt where Johann Eck and Balthasar Hübmaier taught. Argula von Grumbach challenged the faculty here to debate her evangelical theology.

Fugger House

Luther met with Cajetan in 1518 in the Fugger House in Augsburg.

Worms Cathedral

Cathedral in Worms. Charles V summoned Luther to the Diet of Worms in 1521.

Jewish Grave

Above is a Jewish gravesite in Worms that dates back to 1076. Anti-semitism was rampant during the Reformation. Balthasar Hübmaier became chaplain of the Chapel of Mary built upon a destroyed synagogue in Regensburg.

Heinrich Bullinger

Above is a statue of Bullinger on the Grossmünster in Zurich.

Geneva

View of Geneva from Calvin's Church.

Wittenberg Door

Close-up of the door of the Wittenberg Castle church. Notice Luther at the foot of the cross with the German New Testament and Melanchthon with the Augsburg Confession!

Alzey Castle

Castle in Alzey where 350 Anabaptists were put to death.

Melanchthon Statue

Statue of Melanchthon at the Reformation monument in Worms.

Grossmünster Door

Door of the Grossmünster in Zurich where Zwingli preached. Michael Sattler was present at the Third Disputation in Zurich.

Jan Hus Statue

Statue of Jan Hus at the Reformation Monument in Worms.

Wycliffe Statue

Statue of Wycliffe at the Reformation Monument in Worms. Notice that he is reading a Bible.

Wycliffe in Worms

Statue of John Wycliffe at the Reformation Monument in Worms.

Pre-Reformers

Notice the side view of this Luther monument in Geneva. It symbolizes the fact that Valdez (Peter Waldo), Wycliffe, and Hus's reforms set the stage for Luther's endeavor.

Savonarola Statue

Above is a statue of Girolamo Savonarola at the Reformation Monument in Worms.

St Peter's Basilica

Pope Julius II began construction of St Peter's Basilica in Rome in 1506.

Castle Church Altar

Above is the altar in the Castle church in Wittenberg. Karlstadt served as a deacon here and preached here when Martin Luther was in hiding at Wartburg Castle.

Printing Press

This ancient printing press in the Luther Museum in Worms was helpful in spreading Luther's ideas throughout Europe.

Vatican Guard

During Pope Julius II's reign, he commissioned Michelangelo to design the uniforms for his troops.

Statue

During the Renaissance period, the obsession of some popes with collecting art was a subject of critique.

Calvin

An image of John Calvin at the Reformation Monument in Worms.

Zwingli

Picture of Zwingli at the Reformation Monument in Worms.

Diet of Speyer Statue

Statue at the Reformation Monument in Worms that symbolizes the Diet of Speyer in 1529. Notice the hand raised in protest.

Pulpit in St. Thomas' Church in Leipzig

Above is the pulpit of St. Thomas' Church in Leipzig. Luther preached here and Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was the choirmaster here for 27 years.

Peter Waldo

Statue of Peter Waldo at the Reformation Monument in Worms.

Peter Waldo

Statue of Peter Waldo at the Reformation Monument in Worms.

Münster Cages

Thomas Müntzer promoted an apocalyptic theology that advocated violence much like the views held by the Münsterites. They also had the same end! The Münsterites were killed and placed in the cages shown above.

Calvin and Beza

Theodore Beza (shown right of Calvin above) was Calvin's successor in Geneva.

Canisius' Home

Canisius' home in Augsburg.

Haller

The above image of Haller is found on the door of Zwingli's church in Zurich.

Vadian

The image of Vadian shown above is found on the door of Zwingli's church in Zurich.

Reformation Seal

Calvin's Church in Geneva

After escaping from prison in Vienne, Michael Servetus fled to Geveva where he was captured and burned at the stake. Calvin's role in Sevetus' execution has often been criticized.

Ignatius Loyola

Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Jesuits.

Ignatius Loyola

Ignatius Loyola founded the Jesuits in 1540.

Pieta at St Lambert's Church in Münster

Pietas like the one shown above were very popular during the late medieval period. They encouraged those who were suffering through plagues and famine to identify their sufferings with the sufferings of Christ. These artistic expressions also demonstrated the presence of grace and hope in the midst of suffering.

Anna Jansz

Above is an etching by Jan Luiken found in the Martyr's Mirror. Anna Jansz is pictured handing over her infant as she is lead away to be executed by drowning.

Menno Simons Monument

Menno Simons monument outside Witmarsum.

Menno Simons Monument in Witmarsum

Above is a monument to Menno Simons in Witmarsum.

Rheinhessen castle in Alzey. This massive tower held Anabaptist prisoners. 350 Anabaptists were killed at this site in 1529.

Rheinhessen Castle in Alzey

Rheinhessen castle in Alzey. 350 Anabaptists were killed at this site in 1529.

Cathedral in Augsburg

This is a view of the cathedral in Augsburg. Frightening images such as the ones shown above demonstrate the Medieval obsession with the fear of death.

Augsburg Dom Door

This view above the door of the cathedral in Augsburg is typical of the architecture of the Middle Ages. Anabaptists in Augsburg showed disdain for what they viewed as an obsession with images. Anabaptists rejected such artwork as idolatrous.

Saint Lamberts Church in Münster

After the Fall of Münster, Anabaptists were tortured and placed in the cages shown above.

Baptistry

Ironically, the baptistery shown above was discovered while excavating beneath Calvin’s church in Geneva. Even though Calvin rejected Anabaptism, persons were baptized by immersion centuries before his ministry in Geneva.

Calvin's Church

John Calvin's church in Geneva.

Calvin's Pulpit in Geneva

Calvin's Pulpit in Geneva.

Geneva

This is a view from Calvin's church in Geneva. One can see why Geneva was described as a "city on a hill."

Canisius' Home

Above is the home of Peter Canisius in Augsburg.

Wartburg Castle

Above is the entrance to Wartburg Castle overlooking Eisenach. While Martin Luther was exiled here, he composed his German translation of the New Testament.

Clement VII Coins

Above are coins minted during the reign of Clement VII.

Doops Sign

Although Mennonites take their name from Menno Simons, Anabaptists in his homeland prefer to be called Doopsgezinde as evidenced by this sign on Menno Simon's church in Witmarsum.

Wartburg Castle

Above is Wartburg Castle overlooking Eisenach. While Martin Luther was exiled here, he composed his German translation of the New Testament.

Wartburg Castle

Above is Wartburg Castle overlooking Eisenach. While Martin Luther was exiled here, he composed his German translation of the New Testament.

Luther's Study

Above is Luther's study at Wartburg Castle. He composed his German translation of the New Testament here.

Menno Simon's Theme Verse

The above plaque found on Menno Simon's church in Witmarsum highlights a key verse in Menno's theology: 1 Corinthians 3:11 "For no one can lay any foundation other than the one that has been laid; that foundation is Jesus Christ.

Stream

This stream runs a few yards away from Menno Simon's church in Witmarsum. Although Menno was not baptized there, many anabaptists were.

St Anna's Church in Augsburg

St Anna's Church in Augsburg where Martin Luther stayed when he met Cajetan in 1518.

Monument to Reformers

This is a side-view of the monument to Martin Luther in Geneva. It symbolizes the fact that Peter Waldo, John Wycliff, and Jan Huss, were forerunners of the Reformation "initiated" by Luther.

Reformed Church in Zollikon

Although Zollikon was the home of the first anabaptist church in Switzerland, they were severely persecuted in this area and eventually exterminated. There are no anabaptists in Zollikon today.

Zwingli Monument in Geneva

Zwingli monument in Geneva.

Ulrich Zwingli

Ulrich Zwingli

Portrait of Zwingli

Ulrich Zwingli

Castle Church Pulpit

Castle Church Altar

Above is the altar of the Castle Church in Wittenberg. Karlstadt celebrated the first "evangelical" communion here on December 25, 1521.

Castle Church Altar

Altar in the Castle Church in Wittenberg where Martin Luther preached.

Wartburg Castle

Wartburg Castle

Wartburg View

View from the entrance of Wartburg Castle.

Wartburg Castle

Wartburg Castle

Diet of Speyer

Statue at the Reformation Monument in Worms that symbolizes the Diet of Speyer in 1529. Notice the hand raised in protest.

St Lambert's Altar

Altar of St Lambert's Church in Münster.

Münster Pulpit

Pulpit of St Lambert's Church in Münster where Bernard Rothmann began his radical preaching that attracted thousands of Anabaptists.

Melanchthon's Grave

Melanchthon's Grave in the Castle Church at Wittenberg.

Luther Monument in Geneva

Martin Luther Monument in Geneva.

Rheinhessen Castle in Alzey

Rheinhessen castle in Alzey. 350 Anabaptists were killed at this site in 1529.

Augsburg Cathedral

Above is from the Cathedral in Augsburg. One can see from the images above the obsession with death that was present during the Middle Ages.

Last Judgment

Above is Michelangelo's Last Judgment, a fresco in the Sistine Chapel built between 1475 and 1483, in the time of Pope Sixtus IV.

Katherine von Bora

The above statue of Katherine von Bora (1499-1552) is in the courtyard of the Luther House in Wittenberg.

University of Geneva

The University of Geneva was founded by John Calvin and Théodor de Bèze in 1559.

Frederick the Wise

Frederick the Wise was Elector of Saxony from 1486-1525.

Pope Innocent VIII

Monument to Pope Innocent VIII in St. Peter's Basilica.

Michelangelo's Moses

Michelangelo's Moses is one of his many works found in Rome. Vittoria Colonna was a close friend of Michelangelo.

Grossmunster in Zurich

Above is the Grossmunster in Zurich where Zwingli preached.

View of Grossmunster

Above is a view of the Grossmunster in Zurich where Zwingli preached. Notice the absence of elaborate stained glass prominent in many churches built during this time. This is due to Zwingli’s rejection of "image-worship."

Grossmunster in Zurich

The first adult baptism of the Reformation occurred almost within the shadow of the Grossmunster in Zurich.

Martin Luther

Image of Martin Luther.