Comparative Chronology: Catholic and Radical

Year Catholic Radical
1452 Robert Bellarmine is born.
1455 Pope Callistus III elected.
1456 Sylvester Mazzolini Prierias is born.
1458 Pope Pius II elected.
1459 Pope Adrian VI is born.
1460 James Hochstraten is born.
1464 Pope Paul II elected.
1465 Johann Tetzel probably born in this year.
1469 Tommaso de Vio Gaetani Cajetan is born.
1471 Pope Sixtus IV elected. Prierias becomes a Dominican.
1475 Pope Leo X is born.
1478 Sixtus IV empowers the Catholic sovereigns to set up the Inquisition. Pope Clement VII is born.
1479 Johannes Cochlaeus is born.
1480 Balthasar Hubmaeir is probably born. Andreas Rudolf Bodenstein von Karlstadt is born.
1483 Gasparo Contarini is born.
1484 Pope Innocent VIII elected.
1486 Johann (John) Eck is born. Karlstadt is born.
1487 Pope Julius III is born.
1488 Cajetan begins studies in Bologna.
1489 John Cochlaeus is born. Thomas Munzer is born. Kaspar von Schwenckfeld is born.
1490 Vittoria Colonna is born. Albert Pighius is born. Michael Sattler probably born. Hans Hut probably born. Thomas M?ntzer is born.
1491 Ignatius Loyola is born. Cajetan goes to Padua to finish studies and teach. George Blaurock is born.
1492 The Moors are driven out of Granada and Ferdinand and Isabella expel the Jews from Spain. Pope Alexander VI elected. Menno Simons born in Witmarsum.
1493 Cajetan begins lecturing at Padua on Peter Lombard's Sentences.
1494 Cajetan appointed university chair of Thomistic studies at Padua. Anna Bijns is born.
1495 Francisco Ximenez (Jimenez) de Cisneros becomes archbishop of Toledo. Prierias begins teaching at Bologna. Pilgram Marpeck is born.
1496 Cajetan publishes commentary on Aquinas' On Being and Essence.
1497 Cajetan becomes professor of Thomistic theology in Pavia.
1498 Girolamo Savonarola burned at the stake. Johann Eck enters University of Heidelberg. Cajetan publishes The Analogy of Names.
1499 Cajetan called to teach in Milan. Sebastian Franck is born in Donauworth.
1500 Juan de Valdes is born. Reginald Pole is born. Jacob Hutter is born.
1501 Johann Eck receives MA from Tubingen. Cajetan called to Rome and appointed procurator general of Dominicans.
1502 Johann Eck publishes On the Primacy of Peter against Luther. A report on the Leipzig debate with Luther and Karlstadt. Pope Gregory XIII is born. Karlstadt receives MA from Erfurt.
1503 Pope Pius elected. Pope Julius II elected. Balthasar H?bmaier begins his studies at the University of Freidburg.
1506 Pope Julius II orders work on St. Peter?s Basilica in Rome. Francis Xavier is born. Cajetan publishes: On Interpretation, Posterior Analytics, The Categories, Metaphysics
1507 Pope appoints Cajetan as vicar general of Dominicans.
1508 Johann Eck is ordained. Cajetan sends Dominicans to the New World. Paola Antonia Negri is born.
1509 Vittoria Colonna marries Ferrante Francesco d'Avalos, a Spanish noble. Jan of Leiden is born.
1510 Johann Eck receives Doctor of Theology from University of Freiburg and begins to teach at Ingolstadt. Cajetan publishes The Infinity of the First Mover. Anna Jansz is born. Karlstadt receives doctorate in theology at Wittenberg.
1511 Cajetan publishes A Comparison of the Authority of the Pope and Councils Michael Servetus is born.
1512 Balthasar H?bmaier begins studies at the University of Ingolstadt at the urging of Johann Eck. Balthasar H?bmaier receives Doctor of Theology degree from Ingolstadt.
1513 Giovanni de Medici becomes Pope Leo X.
1514 Prierias begins teaching in Rome. Prierias publishes *Summa Silvestrina.*
1515 Teresa of Avila is born. Prierias named "Master of the Sacred Palace,"the court theologian to pope Leo X. Karlstadt goes to Rome and studies to receive doctorate in canon law and civil law. Sebastian Franck attends the University of Ingolstadt.
1516 Balthasar H?bmaier becomes cathedral preacher at Regensburg.
1517 The Oratory of Divine Love is founded in Rome Francisco Ximenez (Jimenez) de Cisneros' Complutensian Polyglot Bible (began in 1502) is completed Cajetan named cardinal by pope Leo X. Pope Leo X commissions Prierias to respond to Luther's 95 thesis. Prierias' *Dialogus* is sent to Luther who responds with *Responsio.*
1518 Joachim Vadian and Conrad Grebel climb Mount Pilatus together.
1519 Leipzig Disputation between Luther and Eck. Karlstadt also debates Eck. [More]
1521 Pope Leo X calls King Henry VIII ?Defender of the Faith? for his publication of an anti-Luther tract. Ignatius Loyola seriously wounded in battle at Pamplona. Peter Canisius is born. Peter Canisius is born. Pope Leo X dies. Balthasar Hubmaier begins ministry in Waldshut. Zwickau prophets arrive in Wittenberg. Balthasar H?bmaier becomes preacher at Waldshut. Karlstadt celebrates the first public evangelical mass in Wittenberg. The first adult baptism of the reformation occurs. [More]
1522 Pope Adrian VI elected. Ignatius Loyola spends a year at Manresa. Bartolome de las Casas becomes a Dominican. Cajetan sent by pope Adrian VI as legate to Hungary. Karlstadt publishes *A Sermon on the Condition of the Souls that Believe in Christ* which denies the existence purgatory. Karlstadt marries Anna von Mochau.
1523 Pope Clement VII elected. Cajetan completes 4th volume of his commentary on Aquinas' Summa. Sylvester Mazzolini Prierias dies. Pope Adrian VI dies. Second Zurich Disputation in which Zwingli argued for the removal of images from churches. Grebel unsuccessfully argued for the abolition of the mass. Balthasar H?bmaier begins to enact reforms in Waldshut. Karlstadt publishes *On the Manifoldness of the Unity of God's Will*. Karlstadt begins his ministry at Orlam?nde. Austrian officials enter Waldshut and demand the Balthasar H?bmaier be arrested. The town resists and soon becomes involved in the Peasants' War.
1524 Gaetano de Thiene founds the Theatines. Menno Simons ordained as Catholic priest. Balthasar H?bmaier writes On Heretics and Those Who Burn Them. Karlstadt publishes *Whether One Should Proceed Slowly* at Basel. Karlstadt publishes *A Question Whether Anyone May Be Saved Without the Intervention of Mary.* Balthasar H?bmaier organizes a disputation in Waldshut. Luther and Karlstadt meet at the Black Bear Inn in Jena.
1525 Eck publishes Arguments against Luther and Other Enemies of the Church. Johann Eck publishes his most important work, Enchiridian. Vittoria Colonna's husband dies. Vittoria Colonna enters the Convent of San Silvestro in Rome. Balthasar H?bmaier writes On the Christian Baptism of Believers. Balthasar H?bmaier marries Elsbeth H?gline. Schwenckfeld visits Wittenberg and debates Martin Luther concerning the Eucharist. Schwenckfeld experiences his second Heimsuchung (divine experience). Thomas M?ntzer is beheaded. Luther allows Karlstadt to seek refuge in Wittenberg. Balthasar H?bmaier and sixty others receive baptism by Wilhelm Reublin in Waldshut. Balthasar H?bmaier flees Waldshut to Zurich.
1526 First Diet of Speyer. Wolsey summons Thomas Bilney and he is forced to take an oath not to disseminate Luther's views. Conrad Grebel dies of the plague. Menno Simons begins to have doubts about transubstantiation. Balthasar H?bmaier begins productive ministry in Nikolsburg. Schwenckfeld suggests in a letter circulated among his followers that advocates the suspension of the Lord's Supper. Hans Denck is expelled from Strasbourg. Hans Denck is expelled from Strasbourg.
1527 Johann Eck publishes On the Sacrifice of the Mass to refute Zwingli's rejection of the mass. James Hochstraten dies. Michael Sattler meets in Schleitheim with a group of Anabaptists and drafts Schleitheim Articles. [More] Felix Manz drowned in Z?rich. Schwenckfeld experiences his third Heimsuchung (divine experience). Hans Hut dies of smoke inhilation in prison in Augsburg. Karlstadt's work *Dialogue on Baptism* is published anonymously. He rejects infant baptism but does not require persons to be re-baptized. Balthasar H?bmaier is arrested in Nikolsburg and taken to Vienna. Michael Sattler is tortured and burned at the stake. Margaretha Sattler is executed by drowning.
1528 Sommaschi founded. Ignatius Loyola graduates from University of Paris. Anna Bijns publishes twenty-three poems condemning the reformation. Balthasar Hubmaier burned at the stake in Vienna. Swabian League authorizes military division of 400 horsemen to hunt for Anabaptists. Sebastian Franck wrote a popular treatise on the social ills of alcohol. Balthasar H?bmaier is burned at the stake in Vienna. Elsbeth H?bmaier is drowned in the Danube. Sebastian Franck marries Ottilie Beham.
1529 Matteo da Bascio founds the Capuchins. Second Diet of Speyer. [More] George Blaurock burned at the stake in Tyrol. Jacob Hutter becomes as Anabaptist preacher. Schwenckfeld is voluntarily exiled from Silesia by Catholics and Lutherans. Karlstadt is expelled from Kiel. 350 Anabaptists killed in Alzey. [More]
1530 Anton Maria Zaccaria founds the Barnabites (Clerks Regular of St. Paul). Cesare Baronius is born. Zwingli helps Karlstadt become a deacon at the Grossm?nster in Zurich. Sebastian Franck moves to Strasbourg probably due to its reputation for religious tolerance.
1531 Menno Simons begins serving as parish priest in Witmarsum. Sebastian Franck publishes The Chronicle of Heretics in Augsburg. Sebastian Franck is driven from Strasburg by authorities.
1534 Pope Paul III elected. Tommaso de Vio Gaetani Cajetan dies. Pope Clement VII dies. Ignatius Loyola and six others (including Francis Xavier) take vows of celebacy and poverty and commit to serving God. M?nster debacle begins as Jan van Leiden is crowned as king and Matthijs arrives. Menno Simons publishes The Spiritual Resurrection. Schwenckfeld is exiled from Strasbourg. Karlstadt becomes professor of Old Testament at Basel. Bartholomeus Boekbinder ane William de Kuiper arrive in M?nster and initiate believers' baptism
1535 Angela Merici founds the Ursulines. Pope Gregory XIV is born. Pieter Simons and several hundred radical anabaptists are captured after they seized the Oldeklooster monastery near Bolsward and are killed. Lutherans and Catholics storm Munster. Anabaptist leaders are tortured and executed. [More]
1536 Teresa of Avila enters Carmelite convent in Avila. Gasparo Contarini asked by pope Paul III to lead papal reform commission. Anna Bijns opens a one-room school. Pope Clement VIII is born. Menni Simons becomes an Anabaptist leader. Jan of Leiden is tortured and killed. Jacob Hutter burned at the stake.
1537 Johann Eck publishes a German translation of the Bible. Vittoria Colonna travels to Ferrera to seek permission to found a Capuchin convent there.
1538 A book of Vittoria Colonna's poetry is published in Parma.
1539 Menno Simons publishes The Fundament. Menno Simons publishes Christian Baptism. Anna Jansz is executed.
1540 Ignatius of Loyola founds the Society of Jesus. Menno Simons publishes Foundation of Christian Doctrine.
1541 Regensburg Colloquy. Juan de Valdes dies. Vittoria Colonna enters the convent of San Caterina at Viterbo. Peter Canisius becomes the first Jesuit in Germany. Peter Riedeman writes Hutterite Confession of Faith. Schwenckfeld writes his Great Confession. Menno Simons publishes True Christian Faith. Karlstadt dies.
1542 Gasparo Contarini dies. Pope Paul III establishes the Congregation of the Inquisition. Albert Pighius dies. Robert Bellarmine is born.
1543 Johann Eck dies. Sebastian Franck dies at Basel.
1545 Council of Trent begins its first session. [More]
1546 Schmalkald War begins. [More]
1547 Vittoria Colonna dies. Peter Canisius advises Cardinal Georg Truchsess von Waldburg at the Council of Trent. Schmalkald War ends.
1548 Ignatius Loyola's Spiritual Excercises first published in its entirety. Anna Bijns publishes another anti-Lutheran work: The Second Book Containing Many Beautifully Artistic Refrains.
1549 Peter Canisius begins teaching at the University of Ingolstadt.
1550 Pope Julius III elected.
1551 Council of Trent begins its second session. Kaspar von Schwenckfeld dies.
1552 Francis Xavier dies. John Cochlaeus dies.
1553 Michael Servetus is burned at the stake in Geneva.
1554 Pope Gregory XV is born.
1555 Pope Marcellus II elected. Pope Paul IV elected. Peter Canisius publishes his first catechism written for priests and adults. Paola Antonia Negri dies. Pope Julius III dies.
1556 Ignatius Loyola dies. Peter Canisius publishes a catechism for children and one for youth. Pilgram Marpeck dies.
1557 Peter Canisius attends the Colloquy of Worms.
1558 Reginald Pole dies.
1559 Pope Pius IV elected. Pope Paul IV approves and publishes the first Index of Forbidden Books. Menno Simons dies.
1562 Council of Trent begins its third session. Teresa of Avila founds St. Joseph's convent in Avila.
1566 Pope Pius V elected.
1567 Third volume of Anna Bijns poetry is published.
1568 Dirk Philips dies.
1571 Peter Canisius publishes Life of John the Baptist.
1572 Pope Gregory XIII elected. St Bartholomew's Day Massacre about 100,000 Huguenots slaughtered.
1575 Anna Bijns probably dies.
1577 Peter Canisius publishes The Life of Virgin Mary.
1580 Peter Canisius founds a Jesuit college in Fribourg.
1582 Teresa of Avila dies.
1585 Pope Gregory XIII dies.
1591 Pope Gregory XIV dies. Pope Innocent IX dies.
1597 Peter Canisius dies.
1605 Pope Clement VIII dies.
1607 Cesare Baronius dies.
1621 Robert Bellarmine dies.
1623 Pope Gregory XV dies.