Pope Adrian VI
Pope Clement VII
Pope Clement VIII
Pope Gregory XIII
Pope Gregory XIV
Pope Gregory XV
Pope Innocent IX
Pope Julius III
Pope Leo X
Pope Leo XI
Pope Marcellus II
Pope Paul III
Pope Paul IV
Pope Paul V
Pope Pius IV
Pope Pius V
Pope Sixtus V
Pope Urban VII

Charles V

Cesare Baronius
Robert Bellarmine
Anna Bijns
Tommaso de Vio Cajetan
Peter Canisius
Johannes Cochlaeus
Vittoria Colonna
Gasparo Contarini
Johann Eck
Ignatius Loyola
Paola Antonia Negri
Albert Pighius
Sylvester Mazzolini Prierias
Teresa of Avila
Konrad Wimpina
Ingolstadt Church

Church in Ingolstadt where Johann Eck and Balthasar Hübmaier preached.

The Catholic Reformation

The term Catholic Reformation is problematic for several reasons. One must not assume that the Catholic Church engaged in reform only as a reaction to the protestant reformation. Cardinal Ximenes was engaged in reform in Spain prior to Luther’s program. John Wycliffe (1330-1384) and Jan Hus (1372-1415) dealt with many of the same issues that Luther addressed. Catherine of Siena (1347-1380) also wrote against the Avignon Papacy. Additionally, the Council of Trent, the high-point of the Catholic Reformation, did not result in any significant changes to traditional Catholic doctrines.

Some have suggested that the term Catholic Reformation should refer to those aspects of the Catholic Church that were instituted to reform some problem areas within the church such as moral laxity and an uneducated clergy, but the term Counter-Reformation be used to describe actions that the Catholic Church took such as the Inquisition and the Index that were designed to squelch the Protestant Reformation.