Stephen Gardiner

Movement English Reformation
Born Bury Saint Edmunds, 1483
Died 1555
Significance Gardiner was secretary to Thomas Wolsey in 1527. He went to Rome to secure Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon but was unsuccessful. In 1531 he was made bishop of Winchester and wrote De vera obedientia or On True Obedience that defended royal supremacy in church affairs in 1535. He was also probably the author of the Six Articles written in 1539. Although he supported Henry VIII, he was a devout Catholic who opposed Lutherans and Calvinists. After Henry’s death, Gardiner was imprisoned for opposing Thomas Cranmer’s reforms and spent five years imprisoned in the Tower of London.

After Edward VI’s death, Mary I appointed Gardiner to Lord Chancellor and he became her chief advisor. In this new role, he became an arch-persecutor of Protestants.
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