|Eucharist||Baptism||Church And State||Church||Justification|
|Martin Luther||consubstantiation-the actual presence of the body of Christ with the bread and wine of the Eucharist.||Baptism is a visible sign of God's gracious promise of salvation.||Two Kingdoms-the earthly rulers provide order and justice in society; the heavenly kingdom is ruled by Christ. The Christian is to be obedient to the "left hand of God."||Church is where the gospel is proclaimed and sacraments rightly administered.||justification by faith alone|
|Ulrich Zwingli||symbolic||Baptism is the sign of the new covenant. "Baptism is the circumcision of the Christians."|
|John Calvin||"For as in baptism, God, regenerating us, engrafts us into the society of his church and makes us his own by adoption...our Heavenly Father invites us to Christ, that refreshed by partaking of him, we may repeatedly gather strength until we shall have reached immortality." -Calvin *Institutes* Calvin rejects transubstantiation, consubstantiation, and Zwingli's symbolic interpretation.||A testimony of divine grace that aids faith. Baptism serves faith by uniting one with Christ and it is a testimony or proclamation concerning God's grace. Infant baptism demonstrates God's care for the elect and their children.||CalvinÝs description in his Institutes of the relationship between church and state differ from his actual practice in Geneva. ýThere is a twofold Government in man: one aspect is spiritual, whereby the conscience is instructed in piety and in reverencing God; the second is political, whereby man is educated for the duties of humanity and citizenship that must be maintained among men.ţ ˝Calvin *Institutes* Christians must obey God's appointed political rulers unless the law violates the Law of God.||There exists both the visible church and the invisible church. The visible church is where the gospel is proclaimed and sacraments rightly ministered, but the invisible church is made up only of the elect. Church discipline is necessary in order to preserve the honor of Christ, not to preserve the purity of the church.||Justification is by faith alone. Double predestination.|
|Andreas von Bodenstein Karlstadt||rejected infant baptism||justification by faith but moral transformation occurs|
|Only believers should be baptized.|
|The Schleitheim Confession||Only believers should be baptized.||Christians can't serve as magistrates.||The church consists of baptized believers only. Church discipline is necessary in order to preserve the purity of the church and be a light to the world.|
© 2004 Mark Gstohl, PhD.