Papal Chronology: Expanded Context

1414 Pope Sixtus IV is born.
1431 Pope Alexander VI is born.
1432 Pope Innocent VIII is born.
1439 Pope Pius III is born.
1443 Pope Julius II is born.
1452 Leonardo da Vinci is born.
1455 Johannes Gutenberg completes printing the Bible in Mainz using movable type
1455 Pope Callistus III elected.
1458 Pope Pius II elected.
1459 Pope Adrian VI is born.
1464 Pope Paul II elected.
1469 Desiderus Erasmus is born.
1471 Pope Sixtus IV elected.
1473 Nicolaus Copernicus is born.
1475 Michelangelo is born.
1475 Pope Leo X is born.
1478 Pope Clement VII is born.
1484 Pope Innocent VIII elected.
1484 Pope Sixtus IV dies.
1487 Pope Julius III is born.
1492 Columbus sets sail for the Americas.
1492 Pope Alexander VI elected.
1492 Pope Innocent VIII dies.
1493 Maximilian I becomes Holy Roman Emperor.
1500 Charles V is born.
1502 Pope Gregory XIII is born.
1503 Pope Pius elected.
1503 Pope Julius II elected.
1503 Pope Alexander VI dies.
1503 Pope Pius III dies.
1504 Pope Julius II allows Henry VIII to marry Catharine of Aragon.
1506 Pope Julius II orders work on St. Peter?s Basilica in Rome.
1507 Pope appoints Cajetan as vicar general of Dominicans.
1509 Erasmus writes In Praise of Folly.
1511 Cajetan publishes A Comparison of the Authority of the Pope and Councils
1513 Giovanni de Medici becomes Pope Leo X.
1513 Battle of the Spurs: Henry VIII's forces defeat the French, at Guinegate.
1513 Pope Julius II dies.
1515 Battle of Marignano.
1516 Erasmus' Greek New Testament published.
1517 Cajetan named cardinal by pope Leo X.
1517 Pope Leo X commissions Prierias to respond to Luther's 95 thesis. Prierias' *Dialogus* is sent to Luther who responds with *Responsio.*
1519 Charles V elected as Holy Roman Emperor.
1519 Maximillian I dies.
1519 Pope Innocent IX is born.
1521 Pope Leo X calls King Henry VIII ?Defender of the Faith? for his publication of an anti-Luther tract.
1521 Pope Leo X dies.
1522 Fall of the Aztecs to Cortes.
1522 Pope Adrian VI elected.
1522 Cajetan sent by pope Adrian VI as legate to Hungary.
1523 Pope Clement VII elected.
1523 Pope Adrian VI dies.
1524 Erasmus writes On the Freedom of the Will.
1524 May 30 Peasants in the Black Forest region of Germany begin Peasants' War. Peasants' War
1526 Charles V marries Princess Isabella of Portugal.
1526 August 29 Battle of Moh?cs. Battle of Mohács
1527 Henry VIII appeals to Pope Clement VII for annulment for marriage to Catharine of Aragon.
1529 The Turks attack Vienna.
1533 Fall of Incas to Pizarro.
1533 Henry VIII is excommunicated.
1534 Pope Paul III elected.
1534 Pope Clement VII dies.
1535 Pope Gregory XIV is born.
1536 Gasparo Contarini asked by pope Paul III to lead papal reform commission.
1536 Pope Clement VIII is born.
1542 Pope Paul III establishes the Congregation of the Inquisition.
1550 Pope Julius III elected.
1550 Bartolome de Las Casas writes In Defense of the Indians.
1552 Bartolome de Las Casas writes The Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indes.
1553 Constantinople falls to the Turks.
1554 Pope Gregory XV is born.
1555 Pope Marcellus II elected.
1555 Pope Paul IV elected.
1555 Pope Julius III dies.
1558 Charles V dies.
1559 Pope Pius IV elected.
1559 Pope Paul IV approves and publishes the first Index of Forbidden Books.
1566 Pope Pius V elected.
1572 Pope Gregory XIII elected.
1585 Pope Gregory XIII dies.
1591 Pope Gregory XIV dies.
1591 Pope Innocent IX dies.
1605 Pope Clement VIII dies.
1623 Pope Gregory XV dies.