1523-1534

1523
Pope Clement VII elected.   Catholic Reformation
  First Zurich Disputation between Zwingli and Johann Faber vicar-general of Constance. Reformation begins in Zurich. Zwingli
Magisterial Reformation
  Second Zurich Disputation in which Zwingli argued for the removal of images from churches. Grebel unsuccessfully argued for the abolition of the mass. Zwingli
Grebel
Magisterial Reformation
Radical Reformation
  Johann Oecolampadius becomes professor at Basel.   Magisterial Reformation
  Balthasar H?bmaier begins to enact reforms in Waldshut.
Radical Reformation
  Cajetan completes 4th volume of his commentary on Aquinas' Summa. Cajetan
Catholic Reformation
  Heinrich Bullinger becomes head teacher at Cistercian monastery at Kappel. Bullinger
Magisterial Reformation
  Heinrich Bullinger meets Ulrich Zwingli. Bullinger
Zwingli
Magisterial Reformation
  Karlstadt publishes *On the Manifoldness of the Unity of God's Will*. Karlstadt
Radical Reformation
  Karlstadt begins his ministry at Orlam?nde. Karlstadt
Radical Reformation
  Sylvester Mazzolini Prierias dies. Prierias
Catholic Reformation
  Pope Adrian VI dies.   Catholic Reformation
  December Austrian officials enter Waldshut and demand the Balthasar H?bmaier be arrested. The town resists and soon becomes involved in the Peasants' War.
Radical Reformation
1524
Erasmus writes On the Freedom of the Will.  
  Menno Simons ordained as Catholic priest. Simons
Radical Reformation
  Gaetano de Thiene founds the Theatines.   Catholic Reformation
  Ulrich Zwingli's marriage to Anna Rhinehardt made public. Zwingli
Magisterial Reformation
  Balthasar H?bmaier writes On Heretics and Those Who Burn Them.
Radical Reformation
  Karlstadt publishes *Whether One Should Proceed Slowly* at Basel. Karlstadt
Radical Reformation
  Karlstadt publishes *A Question Whether Anyone May Be Saved Without the Intervention of Mary.* Karlstadt
Radical Reformation
  Thomas Bilney "converts" Hugh Latimer. Bilney
English Reformation
  April Balthasar H?bmaier organizes a disputation in Waldshut.
Radical Reformation
  August 21 Luther and Karlstadt meet at the Black Bear Inn in Jena. Luther
Karlstadt
Magisterial Reformation
Radical Reformation
  May 30 Peasants in the Black Forest region of Germany begin Peasants' War. [More]  
1525
Eck publishes Arguments against Luther and Other Enemies of the Church. Luther
Catholic Reformation
Magisterial Reformation
  Luther marries Katherine von Bora. [More] Luther
Magisterial Reformation
  Johann Eck publishes his most important work, Enchiridian. Eck
Catholic Reformation
  Balthasar H?bmaier writes On the Christian Baptism of Believers.
Radical Reformation
  Balthasar H?bmaier marries Elsbeth H?gline.
Radical Reformation
  Vittoria Colonna's husband dies. Colonna
Catholic Reformation
  Vittoria Colonna enters the Convent of San Silvestro in Rome. Colonna
Catholic Reformation
  Heinrich Bullinger abolishes the mass at Cistercian monastery. Bullinger
Magisterial Reformation
  Schwenckfeld visits Wittenberg and debates Martin Luther concerning the Eucharist. Schwenckfeld
Luther
Magisterial Reformation
Radical Reformation
  Schwenckfeld experiences his second Heimsuchung (divine experience). Schwenckfeld
Radical Reformation
  Berchtold Haller ceases saying Mass in Bern. Haller
Magisterial Reformation
  Thomas M?ntzer is beheaded.
Radical Reformation
  Luther allows Karlstadt to seek refuge in Wittenberg. Luther
Karlstadt
Magisterial Reformation
Radical Reformation
  Thomas Bilney is licensed to preach in Ely. Bilney
English Reformation
  April 15 Balthasar H?bmaier and sixty others receive baptism by Wilhelm Reublin in Waldshut.
Radical Reformation
  December Balthasar H?bmaier flees Waldshut to Zurich.
Radical Reformation
  January Heinrich Bullinger attends Zurich disputation with Anabaptists. Bullinger
Magisterial Reformation
1526
Conrad Grebel dies of the plague.   Radical Reformation
  Menno Simons begins to have doubts about transubstantiation. Simons
Radical Reformation
  Balthasar H?bmaier begins productive ministry in Nikolsburg.
Radical Reformation
  Charles V marries Princess Isabella of Portugal.  
  Heinrich Bullinger celebrates reformed eucharist at Cistercian monastery. Bullinger
Magisterial Reformation
  First Diet of Speyer.   Catholic Reformation
Magisterial Reformation
  Joachim Vadian becomes mayor of St Gall. Later that year, St Gall becomes a reformed city. Vadian
Magisterial Reformation
  Ulrich Zwingli and Berchtold Haller attend the Baden Disputation. Haller
Zwingli
Magisterial Reformation
  Henry VIII begins courting Anne Boleyn. Henry
English Reformation
  Wolsey summons Thomas Bilney and he is forced to take an oath not to disseminate Luther's views. Bilney
Catholic Reformation
English Reformation
  April 21 Schwenckfeld suggests in a letter circulated among his followers that advocates the suspension of the Lord's Supper. Schwenckfeld
Radical Reformation
  August 29 Battle of Moh?cs. [More]  
  December 25 Hans Denck is expelled from Strasbourg.   Radical Reformation
  December 25 Hans Denck is expelled from Strasbourg.   Radical Reformation
1527
Michael Sattler meets in Schleitheim with a group of Anabaptists and drafts Schleitheim Articles. [More]   Radical Reformation
  Felix Manz drowned in Z?rich.   Radical Reformation
  Johann Eck publishes On the Sacrifice of the Mass to refute Zwingli's rejection of the mass. Eck
Catholic Reformation
  James Hochstraten dies.   Catholic Reformation
  Schwenckfeld experiences his third Heimsuchung (divine experience). Schwenckfeld
Radical Reformation
  Hans Hut dies of smoke inhilation in prison in Augsburg.   Radical Reformation
  Karlstadt's work *Dialogue on Baptism* is published anonymously. He rejects infant baptism but does not require persons to be re-baptized. Karlstadt
Radical Reformation
  Henry VIII appeals to Pope Clement VII for annulment for marriage to Catharine of Aragon. Henry
English Reformation
  July Balthasar H?bmaier is arrested in Nikolsburg and taken to Vienna.
Radical Reformation
  May 20 Michael Sattler is tortured and burned at the stake.   Radical Reformation
  May 22 Margaretha Sattler is executed by drowning.   Radical Reformation
1528
Balthasar Hubmaier burned at the stake in Vienna.   Radical Reformation
  Swabian League authorizes military division of 400 horsemen to hunt for Anabaptists.   Radical Reformation
  Sommaschi founded.   Catholic Reformation
  Ignatius Loyola graduates from University of Paris. Loyola
Catholic Reformation
  Heinrich Bullinger accompanies Ulrich Zwingli to the disputation at Bern Bullinger
Zwingli
Magisterial Reformation
  Anna Bijns publishes twenty-three poems condemning the reformation. Bijns
Catholic Reformation
  Joachim Vadian moderates the Bern Disputation. Vadian
Magisterial Reformation
  Jeanne of Navarre is born.   Magisterial Reformation
  Sebastian Franck wrote a popular treatise on the social ills of alcohol. Franck
Radical Reformation
  March 10 Balthasar H?bmaier is burned at the stake in Vienna.
Radical Reformation
  March 13 Elsbeth H?bmaier is drowned in the Danube.
Radical Reformation
  March 17 Sebastian Franck marries Ottilie Beham. Franck
Radical Reformation
1529
Luther and Zwingli debate at Marburg Colloquy [More] Luther
Zwingli
Magisterial Reformation
  George Blaurock burned at the stake in Tyrol.   Radical Reformation
  Schmalkald League is formed by Lutheran princes to defend their faith.   Magisterial Reformation
  Matteo da Bascio founds the Capuchins.   Catholic Reformation
  Simon Fish publishes The Supplication of Beggars.   English Reformation
  Thomas More replaces Wolsey as Lord Chancellor.   English Reformation
  Jacob Hutter becomes as Anabaptist preacher.   Radical Reformation
  The Turks attack Vienna.  
  Second Diet of Speyer. [More]   Catholic Reformation
Magisterial Reformation
  Schwenckfeld is voluntarily exiled from Silesia by Catholics and Lutherans. Schwenckfeld
Radical Reformation
  Thomas More succeeds Thomas Wolsey as Lord Chancellor. More
English Reformation
  Karlstadt is expelled from Kiel. Karlstadt
Radical Reformation
  350 Anabaptists killed in Alzey. [More]   Radical Reformation
  August Heinrich Bullinger marries Anna Adlischwyler. Bullinger
Magisterial Reformation
  June Bremgarten becomes a reformed town. Bullinger
Magisterial Reformation
  May Heinrich Bullinger replaces his father as pastor at Bremgarten. Bullinger
Magisterial Reformation
1530
Anton Maria Zaccaria founds the Barnabites (Clerks Regular of St. Paul).   Catholic Reformation
  Robert Barnes flees to Wittenberg.   English Reformation
  William Tracy's will circulates among evangelicals. As a result, his body is exhumed and burned.   English Reformation
  Robert Barnes writes A Supplication unto King Henry VIII. Barnes
English Reformation
  Cesare Baronius is born.   Catholic Reformation
  Bucer and Capito write Tetrapolitan Confession.   Magisterial Reformation
  Zwingli helps Karlstadt become a deacon at the Grossm?nster in Zurich. Zwingli
Karlstadt
Magisterial Reformation
Radical Reformation
  Sebastian Franck moves to Strasbourg probably due to its reputation for religious tolerance. Franck
Radical Reformation
1531
Zwingli dies at the Battle of Kappel. Zwingli
Magisterial Reformation
  Robert Barnes writes Supplication to Henry VIII.   English Reformation
  Johann Oecolampadius dies.   Magisterial Reformation
  Menno Simons begins serving as parish priest in Witmarsum. Simons
Radical Reformation
  Heinrich Bullinger arrives in Zurich. Bullinger
Magisterial Reformation
  Thomas Bilney executed in London. Bilney
English Reformation
  Sebastian Franck publishes The Chronicle of Heretics in Augsburg. Franck
Radical Reformation
  Sebastian Franck is driven from Strasburg by authorities. Franck
Radical Reformation
  December 13 Replaces Zwingli as pastor in Zurich. Bullinger
Magisterial Reformation
  October Heinrich Bullinger flees Bremgarten due to the defeat of Zurich troops at Kappel. Bullinger
Magisterial Reformation
1532
John Calvin publishes his first work?a commentary on Seneca?s De Clementia. Calvin
Magisterial Reformation
  Guillaume Farel arrives in Geneva.   Magisterial Reformation
  Berchtold Haller debates Anabaptists in Zofingen. Haller
Magisterial Reformation
  Berchtold Haller and Capito write the Berner Synodus, a church order for Bern. Haller
Magisterial Reformation
  Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor the day after the Submission of the Clergy is passed. More
English Reformation
  Thomas More writes Letter Against Frith. More
English Reformation
1533
Parliament passes the Act in Restraint of Appeals.   English Reformation
  Anne Boleyn gives birth to Elizabeth.   English Reformation
  Fall of Incas to Pizarro.  
  Thomas More writes Confutation of Tyndale's Answer. More
English Reformation
  Henry VIII is excommunicated. Henry
English Reformation
  The Buggery Act is adopted by Henry VIII. [More] Cromwell
Henry
English Reformation
  Johann Bugenhagen receives hid doctorate of theology at Wittenberg. Bugenhagen
Magisterial Reformation
  March Thomas Cranmer is appointed Archbishop of Canterbury by Henry VIII. Cranmer
English Reformation
  May Henry VIII secretly marries Anne Boleyn. Henry
English Reformation
1534
King Henry VIII declares himself the supreme head of the church in England.   English Reformation
  M?nster debacle begins as Jan van Leiden is crowned as king and Matthijs arrives.   Radical Reformation
  Pope Paul III elected.   Catholic Reformation
  Act of Supremacy.   English Reformation
  Menno Simons publishes The Spiritual Resurrection. Simons
Radical Reformation
  Tommaso de Vio Gaetani Cajetan dies. Cajetan
Catholic Reformation
  Schwenckfeld is exiled from Strasbourg. Schwenckfeld
Radical Reformation
  Karlstadt becomes professor of Old Testament at Basel. Karlstadt
Radical Reformation
  Pope Clement VII dies.   Catholic Reformation
  August 15 Ignatius Loyola and six others (including Francis Xavier) take vows of celebacy and poverty and commit to serving God. Loyola
Catholic Reformation
  January 5 Bartholomeus Boekbinder ane William de Kuiper arrive in M?nster and initiate believers' baptism   Radical Reformation